Qualitative impairment in social interaction,
as manifested by at least two of the following:
Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze,
facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction.
Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level.
Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other
people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other
Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and
activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of
interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus.
Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or
complex whole-body movements).
Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.
The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other
important areas of functioning.
There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by
age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of
age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction),
and curiosity about the environment in childhood.
Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or
Criteria summarized from:
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
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